Relationships for supply chain success By Kenneth B. Ackerman and Art Van Bodegraven From the Quarter 4 issue Comment Supply chain management by its very nature depends on relationships and connections. In the first excerpt from their recent book, Fundamentals of Supply Chain Management:
Consider the act of collaboration. Each upsurge in the number of professionals who work in a company leads to an almost exponential — not linear — increase in the number of potential collaborators and unproductive interactions.
Many leading companies now employ 10, or more professionals, who have some 50 million potential bilateral relationships.
3. Discuss in scholarly detail twenty-first-century corporations in terms of organizational phenomena and tactics. Include in your answer brief definitions of a virtual organization, agile organization, modular organization and learning organization. The twenty-first century was predicted to bring a highly challenging competitive landscape and it materialized in the first decade of the new century. Scholars and practitioners alike argued that managers would have to develop and use unique capabilities to be successful strategic leaders in this challenging competitive landscape. Discuss in scholarly detail twenty-first-century corporations in terms of organizational phenomena and tactics. Include in your answer brief definitions of a virtual organization, agile organizatio 5 answers.
The same holds true for knowledge: As finding people and knowledge becomes more difficult, social cohesion and trust among professional colleagues declines, further reducing productivity. In fact, their vertically oriented organizational structures, retrofitted with ad hoc and matrix overlays, nearly always make professional work more complex and inefficient.
These vertical structures — relics of the industrial age — are singularly ill suited to the professional work process. Professionals cooperate horizontally with one another throughout a company, yet vertical structures force such men and women to search across poorly connected organizational silos to find knowledge and collaborators and to gain their cooperation once they have been found.
Professionals seeking to collaborate thus need to go up the organization before they can go across it. Effective collaboration often takes place only when the would-be collaborators enlist hierarchical line managers to resolve conflicts between competing organizational silos.
Much time is lost reconciling divergent agendas and finding common solutions. Other ad hoc organizational devices, such as internal joint ventures, co-heads of units, and proliferating task forces and study groups, serve only to complicate the organization further and to increase the amount of time required to coordinate work internally.
The result is endless meetings, phone calls, and e-mail exchanges as talented professionals — line managers or members of shared utilities — waste valuable time grappling with the complexity of a deeply flawed organizational structure.
A New Organizational Model To raise the productivity of professionals, big corporations must change their organizational structures dramatically, retaining the best of the traditional hierarchy while acknowledging the heightened value of the people who hatch ideas, innovate, and collaborate with peers to generate revenues and create value through intangible assets such as brands and networks.
Companies can achieve these goals by modifying their vertical structures to let different groups of professionals focus on clearly defined tasks — line managers on earnings, for instance, and off-line teams on longer-term growth initiatives — with clear accountability. Then these companies should create new, overlaid networks and marketplaces that make it easier for professionals to interact collaboratively and to find the knowledge they need.
Companies can not only build this new kind of organization but also reduce the complexity of their interactions and improve the quality of internal collaboration by implementing four interrelated organizational-design principles: A company that tries to simplify its vertical organizational structure without helping large numbers of self-directed professionals to collaborate more easily might increase its efficiency, for example.
But that would be more than offset by a decrease in its effectiveness. To achieve this goal, a company must establish a clearly dominant axis of management — product, functional, geographic, or customer — and eliminate the matrix and ad hoc organizational structures that often muddle decision-making authority and accountability.
Dynamic management and improved collaboration, as we show later, are better ways of accomplishing the purposes of these ad hoc structures. A company that aims to streamline its line-management structures should create an effective enterprise-wide governance mechanism for decisions that cross them, such as the choices involved in managing shared IT costs.
These mechanisms are typically created by defining and clarifying the decision-making authority of each member of the senior leadership team and establishing enterprise-wide governance committees as required.
Twenty-First Century Pamela S. Tolbert Cornell University, [email protected] Part of theLabor Relations Commons,Organizational Behavior and Theory Commons, and the Work, Economy and Organizations Commons On Organizations and Oligarchies: Michels in the Twenty-First Century Abstract. In the first excerpt from their recent book, Fundamentals of Supply Chain Management: An Essential Guide for the 21st Century, the authors describe some of the relationships that play an important role in achieving supply chain success. The Twenty-First-Century HR Organization needs a full-time HR professional; a line manager can usually handle required basic HR activities.
It may also be necessary to take important support functions, which demand focused management, out of the line structure, so that specialized professionals rather than line managers, who are often, at best, gifted amateurs can run these functions as shared utilities.
Finally, to promote the creation of enterprise-wide formal networks, parallel structures and parallel roles should be established across the whole extent of the company.
Defining the role of the comptroller or the country manager consistently throughout it, for example, helps the people in those roles to interact and collaborate. Manage Dynamically Once the newly simplified vertical structure allows line managers to limit their attention to meeting the near-term earnings expectations of the company, it has the luxury of focusing other professionals on the long-term creation of wealth.
The advantages of such a separation are obvious.
Few down-the-line managers, who must live day to day in an intensely competitive marketplace, have the time or resources for such a discovery process. Not that companies should forgo discipline while undertaking such a project. Risk and Resilience, pp.
The primary stages of such an investment process are diagnosing the problem or opportunity, designing a solution, creating the prototype, and scaling it up, with natural stopping points, midcourse corrections, or both at the end of each stage. Companies that take this approach devote a fixed part of their budgets say, 2 to 4 percent of all spending and some of their best talent to finding and developing longer-term strategic initiatives.
Each major one usually has a senior manager as its sponsor to ensure that resources are well invested. Once an initiative is ready to be scaled up — when revenues and cost projections become clear enough to appear in the budget — it can be placed in the line structure.
Of course, at the enterprise level, companies must manage their short- and long-term earnings in a way that integrates their spending on strategic initiatives with the overall budget, so they will need to adopt a systemic, effective way of making the necessary trade-offs.
What we call dynamic management can help: Dynamic management forces companies to make resource allocation trade-offs, explicitly, at the top of the house rather than allowing them to be made, implicitly, by down-the-line managers struggling to make their budgets. Develop Organizational Overlays Having stripped away unproductive matrix and ad hoc structures from the vertical organization and clarified the line structure, a company must develop organizational overlays in the form of markets and networks that help its professionals work horizontally across its whole extent.
These overlays make it easier for them to exchange knowledge, to find and collaborate with other professionals, and to develop communities that create intangible assets.
Because these market and network overlays help professionals to interact horizontally across the organization without having to go up or down the vertical chain of command, they boost rather than hinder productivity. Companies that establish such overlays are making investments not only to minimize the search and coordination costs of professionals who exchange knowledge and other valuable intangibles among themselves but also to maximize the opportunities for all sorts of cost-effective, productive interactions among them.
We believe that moving simultaneously into knowledge marketplaces, talent marketplaces, and formal networks will make all three more effective.Sponsorship within the sports world is a new phenomenon, introduced during the 's.
false Managing technology, being familiar with it, and using it to one's advantage, is not something every manager should strive to achieve. Discuss in scholarly detail twenty-first-century corporations in terms of organizational phenomena and tactics.
Include in your answer brief definitions of a virtual organization, agile organization, modular organization and learning. In the past "mass communication" and "mass media" were terms that connected to easily identifiable media of communication.
Print, radio and television defined an Within the latter decades of the twentieth century continuing into the twenty-first century, two very distinct phenomena have occurred. First, as noted at the outset.
3. Discuss in scholarly detail twenty-first-century corporations in terms of organizational phenomena and tactics. Include in your answer brief definitions of a virtual organization, agile organization, modular organization and learning organization.
Case Studies and the Conﬁgurational Analysis of Organizational Phenomena Peer C. Fiss has to come to terms with the entity that the approachtakesitsnamefrom,thatis,thecase. AsRagin(a)andothershavepointedout, CASE STUDIES AND THE CONFIGURATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ORGANIZATIONAL PHENOMENA .
Discuss in scholarly detail twenty-first-century corporations in terms of organizational phenomena and tactics. Include in your answer brief definitions of a virtual organization, agile organizatio 5 answers.