The ability of several of these membrane proteins to transport a wide range of anticancer drugs out of cells and their presence in many tumors make them prime suspects in unexplained cases of drug resistance, although proof that they contribute to clinical drug resistance is still lacking. Recent studies have begun to clarify the function of the MRP family members. MRPs are organic anion transporters; i.
Tuberculosis TB Multidrug resistance a disease caused by bacteria that are spread from person to person through the air. TB usually affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body, such as the brain, the kidneys, or the spine.
In most cases, TB is treatable and curable; however, persons with TB can die if they do not get proper treatment. These drugs are used to treat all persons with TB disease. These persons are more likely to develop TB disease once they are infected, and also have a higher risk of death once they develop TB.
How is TB spread? Drug-susceptible TB and drug-resistant TB are spread the same way. TB bacteria are put into the air when a person with TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings.
These bacteria can float in the air for several hours, depending on the environment. Persons who breathe in the air containing these TB bacteria can become infected.
Resistance to anti-TB drugs can occur when these drugs are misused or mismanaged. Examples include when patients do not complete their full course of treatment; when health-care providers prescribe the wrong treatment, the wrong dose, or length of time for taking the drugs; when the supply of drugs is not always available; or when the drugs are of poor quality.
Drug resistance is more common in people who: The most important thing a person can do to prevent the spread of MDR TB is to take all of their medications exactly as prescribed by their health care provider.
No doses should be missed and treatment should not be stopped early. Patients should tell their health care provider if they are having trouble taking the medications. If patients plan to travel, they should talk to their health care providers and make sure they have enough medicine to last while away.
If you work in hospitals or health-care settings where TB patients are likely to be seen, you should consult infection control or occupational health experts. Ask about administrative and environmental procedures for preventing exposure to TB.
Once those procedures are implemented, additional measures could include using personal respiratory protective devices. Is there a vaccine to prevent TB?
It is used in some countries to prevent severe forms of TB in children. If you think you have been exposed to someone with TB disease, you should contact your doctor or local health department about getting a TB skin test or TB blood test. And tell the doctor or nurse when you spent time with this person.
What are the symptoms of TB disease? The general symptoms of TB disease include feelings of sickness or weakness, weight loss, fever, and night sweats.
The symptoms of TB disease of the lungs may also include coughing, chest pain, and coughing up blood. Symptoms of TB disease in other parts of the body depend on the area affected. If you have these symptoms, you should contact your doctor or local health department.The Problem of Multidrug Resistance.
For years it has been known in the medical and pharmaceutical industries that the characteristic that results in the majority of cancer deaths is multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapy in relapsed/refractory cancer patients.
MDR results in as many as five hundred thousand deaths from cancer annually in the United States alone. Federal and state health officials who are investigating a multistate outbreak of multidrug-resistant Salmonella linked to a variety of raw turkey products and based on detection in live birds are warning that the strain might be widespread in the turkey industry.
Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is TB that does not respond to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, the 2 most powerful anti-TB drugs. The 2 reasons why multidrug resistance continues to emerge and spread are mismanagement of TB treatment and person-to-person transmission.
Multiple drug resistance. Multidrug resistance is the major obstruction for successful chemotherapy even with targeted drugs or/and combination chemotherapy. multidrug resistance (multiple drug resistance) a phenomenon seen in some malignant cell lines: cells that have developed natural resistance to a single cytotoxic compound are also resistant to structurally unrelated chemotherapy agents.
Called also cross-resistance. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) refers to mechanisms by which many cancers develop resistance to chemotherapy drugs and is a major factor in the failure of many forms of chemotherapy.