Read more… Four essays sustain the literary focus in the collection. The Times Literary Supplement Please read or review the essay before you read the commentary below. A Reader, Rhetoric and Handbook Successive episodes and aspects of this tale are the subject of six essays. The Times Literary Supplement The essays range from short to very short.
Classical Indian translation is characterized by loose adaptation, rather than the closer translation more commonly found in Europe; and Chinese translation theory identifies various criteria and limitations in translation.
In the East Asian sphere of Chinese cultural influence, more important English essays translated to hindi essays translation per se has been the use and reading of Chinese texts, which also had substantial influence on the Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese languages, with substantial borrowings of Chinese vocabulary and writing system.
Notable is the Japanese kanbuna system for glossing Chinese texts for Japanese speakers. Though Indianized states in Southeast Asia often translated Sanskrit material into the local languages, the literate elites and scribes more commonly used Sanskrit as their primary language of culture and government.
The internal structure of Chinese characters has a beauty of its own, and the calligraphy in which classical poems were written is another important but untranslatable dimension.
Since Chinese characters do not vary in length, and because there are exactly five characters per line in a poem like [the one that Eliot Weinberger discusses in 19 Ways of Looking at Wang Wei with More Ways ], another untranslatable feature is that the written result, hung on a wall, presents a rectangle.
Translators into languages whose word lengths vary can reproduce such an effect only at the risk of fatal awkwardness Another imponderable is how to imitate therhythm in which five- syllable lines in classical Chinese poems normally are read.
Chinese characters are pronounced in one syllable apiece, so producing such rhythms in Chinese is not hard and the results are unobtrusive; but any imitation in a Western language is almost inevitably stilted and distracting. Even less translatable are the patterns of tone arrangement in classical Chinese poetry.
Each syllable character belongs to one of two categories determined by the pitch contour in which it is read; in a classical Chinese poem the patterns of alternation of the two categories exhibit parallelism and mirroring. What does the translator think the poetic line says? And once he thinks he understands it, how can he render it into the target language?
Most of the difficulties, according to Link, arise in addressing the second problem, "where the impossibility of perfect answers spawns endless debate. At the literalist extreme, efforts are made to dissect every conceivable detail about the language of the original Chinese poem.
Some Western languages, however, ask by grammatical rule that subjects always be stated. Weinberger points out, however, that when an "I" as a subject is inserted, a "controlling individual mind of the poet" enters and destroys the effect of the Chinese line.
Without a subject, he writes, "the experience becomes both universal and immediate to the reader. For poets, this creates the great advantage of ambiguity.
According to Link, Weinberger's insight about subjectlessness—that it produces an effect "both universal and immediate"—applies to timelessness as well.
Dilemmas about translation do not have definitive right answers although there can be unambiguously wrong ones if misreadings of the original are involved. Any translation except machine translation, a different case must pass through the mind of a translator, and that mind inevitably contains its own store of perceptions, memories, and values.
Arab translation initially focused primarily on politics, rendering Persian, Greek, even Chinese and Indic diplomatic materials into Arabic. In terms of theory, Arabic translation drew heavily on earlier Near Eastern traditions as well as more contemporary Greek and Persian traditions.
Arabic translation efforts and techniques are important to Western translation traditions due to centuries of close contacts and exchanges.
Especially after the RenaissanceEuropeans began more intensive study of Arabic and Persian translations of classical works as well as scientific and philosophical works of Arab and oriental origins. Arabic and, to a lesser degree, Persian became important sources of material and perhaps of techniques for revitalized Western traditions, which in time would overtake the Islamic and oriental traditions.
In the 19th century, after the Middle East 's Islamic clerics and copyists had conceded defeat in their centuries-old battle to contain the corrupting effects of the printing press[an] explosion in publishing Along with expanding secular education, printing transformed an overwhelmingly illiterate society into a partly literate one.
In the past, the sheikhs and the government had exercised a monopoly over knowledge. Now an expanding elite benefitted from a stream of information on virtually anything that interested them. Between and The most prominent among them was al-Muqtataf This was the biggest, most meaningful importation of foreign thought into Arabic since Abbasid times — Yet Arabic has its own sources of reinvention.
The root system that Arabic shares with other Semitic tongues such as Hebrew is capable of expanding the meanings of words using structured consonantal variations:This Application is very helpful for Class 9, 10, 12 and College Students.
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