Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Both are not only ways of thinking, but ways of life. They are not religions: Confucianism and Daoism are often considered polar opposites for several reasons, although they have a few similarities.
In particular, and in contradistinction to Islamic design, there is a preference for asymmetry, an aspect of garden aesthetics associated with a lack of perfection in form and shape as well as in a preference for odd rather than even numbers.
Some of the above are repeated, but here are described in a little more detail: So, with these the Japanese garden strives to create a particular feeling or character in the observer, one that is specific to that particular location, one that reflects the seasons and variations of nature, and one that reflects the variety of philosphical and cultural characteristics of the Japanese.
Above, I mentioned that Japanese gardens might be characterised as wet or dry gardens, but another way of looking at them is to consider them as comprising two types: This latter requirement gives rise to the use of fences and screens to define, focus, hide and reveal.
The essential design requirement is to ensure that the viewer or user of the garden is drawn into the garden, to have empathy with it to the extent that his imagination extends its physical boundaries. These different concepts are not a vocabulary from which a selection may be made for a particular garden; they have all to be employed in the design of any garden.
The elements of design set out above will give much of the design character required of the Japanese garden, but different features should not appear to be manufactured or man-made, but should seem natural and evolved over time. In this regard the markers of the passage of time such as weathering, moss and discolouration should also be employed.
In short, Islamic design varies, though is linked by a common unity of spirit. In Arabic the name for a heavenly garden is jannahof which the highest level of garden is firdawsmost commonly used in the phrase jannaat al-firdaws — gardens of paradise.
The characteristics we associate with Islamic gardens are mostly based on Persian gardens which existed before Islam moved out of the Arabian peninsula.
The concept of Paradise being a garden pre-dates Islam, Christianity and Judaism by thousands of years. Originating with the Sumerians, paradise gardens were also a feature the Babylonians reserved for their gods, introducing two of what were to become basic elements of an Islamic garden: With its adoption by the Greeks, Paradise became associated in the Abrahamic religions with Heaven.
Not only that, but the injunction against naturalistic representation in Islam generally avoided the psychological projection of the viewer from the site by omitting designed references to objects found outside the site.
This relationship of landscaping with architecture was essentially reflective, perhaps being best epitomised in the Western mind with the development of the Alhambra in Granada, carried out at a peak in the development of arts and thought in Islamic Spain.
In particular the use of water as an essential element of the design — perhaps more important than planting — demonstrated a sophistication and sensibility to the introspective nature of Islam that has rarely been matched.
Views from the Alhambra permitted sight of the outlying scenery and, in this manner, reinforced the delicacy of the interior development of the palace, and its containment and relationship with nature. Some experts believe it to be the most perfect marriage of buildings with internal and natural landscaping.
Having said that, the Alhambra we see today is the product of later development. Following the success of the reconquista which saw Christian Spain retake Granada and the Alhambra inthe Alhambra was left to deteriorate for a long period of time and was only brought back to life in the last century under the combination of an increasing number of European travellers and Victorian romanticism.
Because of this we can not guarantee that what we now see replicates the original design. One final note on the Alhambra is that it, together with buildings such as the Chehel Sutun pavilion in Isfahan, demonstrate the blurring of internal and external spaces, a feature not just of buildings in hot climates, but where philosophical ideals create the conditions which join man with nature, and reflect this in their structures and planting.
Before I leave this area I should also mention Mughal gardens. Earlier I noted that Islam moved out of the Arabian peninsula and, adapting traditional Persian gardens, introduced them to Moorish Spain in the West and to the Mughal Indian sub-continent.
Although Moorish and Mughal landscaping were not coeval, they represented local developments of design under Islamic influence. Both are regarded as incorporating Islamic gardens which, of course, continued within Persia and elsewhere. The Mongols moved into Persia in the thirteenth century, then on to the Indian sub-continent taking with them the concept of the Islamic garden with them, gardens referred to as Mughal, perhaps the most famous being the Taj Mahal.
The reference i made in the previous paragraph suggests that there are seven basic considerations for an Islamic garden: There is interplay between the real and ideal, practicality and fantasy, tangible and symbolic, physical and metaphysical, and urban and natural; beauty, and aesthetic qualities are seen as important in Islam.
Traditionally, artistic endeavours have developed but have always been seen to be an integral part of life. The use of water, particularly, is carefully controlled and, when used, there are likely to be three factors in operation: There must be an orderly spatial plan in Islamic cities, even if this is not apparent from a Western perspective; individualism, is considered central to Islam, where each person is responsible directly to God.
A garden should provide food and water not only for the inhabitants but also animals and birds; its trees and shrubs will produce fruit and herbs as well as shade, movement and scent and, where possible, a range of active and passive activities should be accommodated within it; and moderation, a subject I touched on previously, relates to the need to maintain a balance of man with nature, and neither to impose a form of rational will on nature as occured in France, nor to submit to a concept of nature as happened in England.
These appear to be the basis on which the older, traditional Islamic gardens were premised, as well as forming a proper basis for new design. Quadripartite layout The traditional design of an Islamic garden with which we are familiar was developed in Persia and, later, is likely to have been based on both the Holy Quran as well as the need to irrigate the garden.
Its two-dimensional characteristic lies in its quadripartite design, by which it is divided by four water courses which are said to represent the rivers to be found in paradise — These four rivers tend to be brought together at a central fountain or pool, a feature and focus of the garden.
Water Water is a central element of Islamic garden design where it has both a physical and metaphysical importance. Islam was established and grew in a part of the world which has a hot, harsh climate and where water brings life to the desert and those who live in it.
The Holy Quran talks of the garden — Confucianism and Taoism are both ancient Chinese styles of living. Confucianism believes in setting good examples for others to follow, primarily in 5 key relationships: ruler and subject, wife and husband, older and younger sibling, friend and friend, and father and son.
Confucianism VS Daoism (Taoism) “Compare and contrast Confucianism with Daoism” Essay Sample Confucianism and Daoism are two of the most influential schools of thought in ancient China.
Both are not only ways of thinking, but ways of life. The Connection between Confucianism and Taoism Confucianism and Taoism are some of the major religions in China.
They have greatly influenced the culture of the Chinese people as well as their world view. The connection between the two religions has influenced many people over time. Confucianism and Taoism Essay. By Lauren .
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He felt his days very long attending his office and sitting stiffly to receive the homage of others.