The Microsystem The microsystem is the small, immediate environment the child lives in.
Tolan We identify and then measure unusual intelligence "giftedness" by externals -- performance and achievement. Sometimes we do this by personal observation, noting that a nine month old is speaking in full sentences or a toddler is picking out the words on cereal boxes.
Sometimes we do it formally with standardized tests of one kind or another. Or we may assess portfolios of children's writing or other sorts of hands-on projects.
All too often we then go on to define the children themselves by the externals we have measured. Giftedness becomes achievement, and so seems to reside outside the individual, a reality having to do with grades, awards, scholarships, and ultimately career choice, position, wealth, success or eminence.
It is vital to remember that giftedness in childhood and beyond is an internal reality, mental processing that is outside of norms.
Achievement, as important as it is, is merely an expression of that mental processing. Achievement may fluctuate depending on a student's immediate situation, his relationship with a particular teacher, the availability of courses of sufficient challenge and interest, even physical health.
Giftedness does not depend on such variables. Whether or not it finds expression in achievement or unusual performance the internal difference remains.
That internal difference is likely to include emotional intensity, unusual awareness and tolerance of complexity and paradox, and a potential for extraordinary moral development. During childhood and beyond these innate attributes may enhance or interfere with performance on various tasks, depending in part on how well they are recognized, understood and guided by the adults in the child's environment.
The child who perceives typical rough and tumble competition on the playground as purposeless violence and connects that violence to persistent ethnic warfare on a global scale may become depressed and cynical about the future of humanity. He may withdraw and become a bitter, self-isolating loner.
Or he may, instead, set himself the task of attempting to understand the roots of conflict, and commit himself to a life of peace-making and diplomacy. A young adult able to grasp the astonishing complexity of the universe may hide from that complexity in the simpler details of a conventional daily life, or she may become a scientist dedicated to answering thus far unanswered questions about how the universe works.
The capacities of mind that make up giftedness can create oddity or eminence, the unremarkable or the spectacular.
For the individual they can create fulfillment and success or pain and confusion. Sometimes they create all of the above. Often the products of gifted children's special mental capacities are valued while the traits that come with those capacities are not. For example, winning an essay contest on the dangers of global warming may get a student lots of attention and praise while her intense emotional reaction to the threat technology poses to the planet and its life forms may be considered excessive, overly dramatic, even neurotic.
If she tries to act on her beliefs by going on strike to force her family or school to renounce what she considers harmful technology, she may be ridiculed, scolded or even punished. Writing a winning essay is deemed not only okay, but admirable; being the sort of person she had to be to write it may not be considered okay.
When we focus only on what gifted children can do rather than on who they are, we ignore vital aspects of their developing selves and risk stunting their growth and muddying or distorting their sense of themselves and their worth. Recently, to counteract the growing focus on achievement, a group of theorists, practitioners, and parents suggested a new definition of giftedness in children: Giftedness is asynchronous development in which advanced cognitive abilities and heightened intensity combine to create inner experiences and awareness that are qualitatively different from the norm.
This asynchrony increases with higher intellectual capacity.
Linguistics TOP Web sites. Meta-index of linguistics resources: Christopher Manning's site at the University of Sydney, Australia.. Fields of Linguistics by the Linguistics Society of America. Literature (chronological) Peirce, Charles S. (). On a . Biography. Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany, on June 15, There is a little mystery about his heritage: His biological father was an unnamed Danish man who abandoned Erik's mother before he was born. Linguistics TOP Web sites. Meta-index of linguistics resources: Christopher Manning's site at the University of Sydney, Australia.. Fields of Linguistics by the Linguistics Society of America. Literature (chronological) Peirce, Charles S. (). On a New List of Categories.
The uniqueness of the gifted renders them particularly vulnerable and requires modifications in parenting, teaching and counseling in order for them to develop optimally. The Columbus Group, This view suggests that gifted children are on a developmental trajectory that is outside of norms from infancy onward.
They reach recognized milestones of development on a schedule that is unique to them, putting them out of sync with society's expectations.
In addition, they may be out of sync internally, with cognitive, social and emotional development on separate and sometimes quite different timetables.
The young gifted child may appear to be many ages at once. He may be eight his chronological age when riding a bicycle, twelve when playing chess, fifteen when studying algebra, ten when collecting fossils and two when asked to share his chocolate chip cookie with his sister.
This variability in behavior and perception is difficult for parents and schools to handle and difficult for the child as well. It is hard to "fit in" consistently when so much of the child's environment is structured by chronological age, an age which may be for the gifted child the least relevant aspect of his development.
Many parents and teachers would like the gifted child to be perfectly "normal" in every way except the ability to perform academic tasks. Life would be so much easier that way.CYP Core 31 How theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice Theories of development and frameworks to support development are incredibly important to us working with children and young people.
Giftedness As Asynchronous Development by Stephanie S. Tolan. We identify and then measure unusual intelligence ("giftedness") by externals -- performance and achievement. Biography. Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany, on June 15, There is a little mystery about his heritage: His biological father was an unnamed Danish man who abandoned Erik's mother before he was born.
The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay. Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate.
In this assignment I will critically discuss Bronfenbrenner’s () Ecological model of human development. I will look at the background to the. Piaget and Vygotsky: The Psychology of Cognitive Development - This essay concerns the psychology of cognitive development. Cognitive development can be explained in terms of the acquisition, construction and progressive change in thought processes such as memory, problem-solving and decision-making that occurs from childhood to .