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Tweet Washington became one of the first two states, along with Colorado, to legalize adult recreational use of marijuana when voters approved Initiative on November 6, The vote was the culmination of a long campaign to end legal penalties for possession and use of the plant and its byproducts, a campaign that since the s had won reduced criminal penalties, permitted medical use, and finally legalization under state law -- marijuana remained illegal, in Washington and elsewhere, under federal law.
This essay traces the history of marijuana, a substance that had been used by humans for thousands of years until being demonized and outlawed across much of the world during the twentieth century, and of the movement to end the criminalization of marijuana use in Washington.
Nature's Pharmacy Nature produces a wide range of medicinal and psychoactive compounds, and humans have used many of them for thousands of years, for healing, for religious purposes, and for recreation. During the millennia when only magic could explain most natural phenomena, plant-derived drugs such as opium and cannabis were believed in many cultures to enhance insight into the mysteries of existence.
In some societies their use was sacred, confined to healers and holies who would then interpret the experience for the faithful. In other societies, psychoactive drugs were used by ordinary citizens, to heal, to approach the divine, or for simple enjoyment.
It is an indisputable fact that throughout recorded history a not-insignificant percentage of the human race has used chemical compounds to alter, at least temporarily, how they experience reality. With the exceptions of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine, marijuana is probably the most widely used psychoactive substance known to humans, and the only one of the four that has been illegal in America since the repeal of alcohol prohibition in Unlike most plants and fungi that contain psychoactive chemicals, the hemp plant the dried leaves and flowers of which are marijuana has many practical Anti marijuana legalization essay.
Since as long ago as B. The first unambiguous written mention of hemp being used for medicinal purposes appears in the Rh-Ya, a fifteenth century B. The Atharva Veda, a compilation of Hindu hymns and scripture that first was reduced to writing ca.
Favorable mentions of hemp under a variety of names but never "marijuana"appear in the early records of many societies, particularly in Asia and South Asia. Following the Linnaean ladder, the Cannabis L.
Ruderalis the latter, until recently, found only in Russia and other northern latitudes. A fourth name, C. Americanus, appears to be an exercise in geographical hubris, with no scientific basis or separate existence in nature.
Etymologists believe that the words "hemp" and "cannabis" are derived from a single Indo-European root that first entered the western world as the Greek kannabis, probably borrowed from the Scythian civilization from the steppes of Central Asia, where hemp itself may have first been used by humans.
Hemp probably originated in Central Asia and spread with human migration and trade. Shreds of hempen cloth and other hemp products have been found in archaeological sites in Asia, Africa, and Europe.
Certainly by the thirteenth century C. It is likely that in most places where hemp was used as a material, it was also used for its physical and psychoactive effects.
In the fifth century B. The qualities that made hemp commercially valuable were strength and durability. Hemp ropes were sturdy, long-lasting, and resistant to stretching, and were used on sailing ships for centuries, notably the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria on which Columbus sailed in Fabric made from hemp for clothing is porous, yet traps air, making it useful in both hot and cool climates.
Hemp is also economical -- studies have shown that a plot of cultivated hemp can produce percent more usable fiber than cotton and percent more than flax grown in the same space.
In the mid-sixteenth century the Spanish introduced the plant into the Americas in what is today Chile, and it spread north from there. In colonial days, the growing of hemp for manufacturing use was widely encouraged, and was mandated by law in the colony of Virginia in Hemp horticulture remained common in the United States until after the Civil War.
Up through the early s, extracts made from the leaves and flowers of the hemp plant were found in many patent medicines. In an interesting sidelight, hemp production was encouraged again by the United States government during World War II, at a time when the possession or use of marijuana was illegal in every state.
But the other product of the plant, hemp fiber, was deemed critical to the war effort, and farmers were granted licenses to supply the military with its needs. This brief love affair ended with the war, and hemp once again became a forbidden crop.
Nomenclature The origin of the word "marijuana" and its cognates, "marihuana" and "marajuana," is obscure, although of relatively recent vintage. Variations soon appeared in other publications, including marihuma Punch, ; mariahuana Pacific Drug Review, ; marijuana The American Practitioner, ; and marihuana The Los Angeles Times, Today the most common term is "marijuana," although the alternate spelling "marihuana" still appears on occasion, often in laws and regulations.
The origins of many of the modern names used to describe the leaves and flowers of the hemp plant are equally obscure. In the Western Hemisphere alone, a sampling would include pot, grass, weed, bud, jay, reefer, joint, ganja, herb, dope, smoke, mary jane, skunk, herbage, doobage, and many others.
Later studies found that the primary cannabinoid receptor, called CB1, exists in far higher concentrations in the brain than any other type of receptor. A second cannabinoid receptor, called CB2, later was found on cells of the immune system, intestinal tract, liver, spleen, kidney, bones, heart, and peripheral nervous system.
These findings led to the obvious question: Why are humans born with such specific and numerous receptors for cannabinoids? The study of how marijuana works in the human brain is one of those areas that becomes more complicated the more deeply one looks.Essay Is The Illegalization of Marijuana Valid?
The debate over the legalization of Cannabis sativa, more commonly known as marijuana, has been one of the most heated controversies ever to occur in the United States. Its use as a medicine has existed for thousands of years in many countries world wide and is documented as far back as BC in ancient Chinese writings.
Sources for Research about Marijuana and Legalization. Medicinal * Historical * Government * Media * Organizations * Public Opinion. Sources on Marijuana as Medicine "Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base" () -- The Institute of Medicine (IOM) published this report in response to the the White House's request for a review of scientific information about marijuana's medical uses.
Arkansas Regional Library. NARL is a consortium of public libraries from Clay, Greene and Randolph Counties.
When the Left complains about being "silenced," it is not because they are actually prevented from speaking, but only because they are pfmlures.com their Orwellian, or Marcusan, universe, "Free speech" is when the Right is silenced. Adapted from remarks to the Ninth Circuit Judicial Conference, San Francisco, July 17, Since November, a kind of fatalistic cloud has settled over the campaign to reform the . Since Rational Recovery entered public consciousness, I have had the privilege of appearing on a good number – actually hundreds – of TV and radio pfmlures.com were tiresome affairs hosted by steppers, others were single-station shows, sometimes at late hours when most listeners were in dreamland, but some talkshows were actually stimulating interviews with hosts who could understand.
The regional library allows for the pooling of resources to better serve the three counties. Against the legalization of marijuana essaysAgainst the legalization of marijuana Should marijuana be legalized? Whether you smoke or not, you probably still have an opinion.
It is sufficiently obvious that marijuana is a threat to our society morally and physically. Its use leads to the use of &qu. Adapted from remarks to the Ninth Circuit Judicial Conference, San Francisco, July 17, Since November, a kind of fatalistic cloud has settled over the campaign to reform the .
The legalization of marijuana is such a controversial topic because some are for it and some are against it. People are for the legalization because of the great uses it has towards medicine, the money that could come from the taxation of legalized marijuana.