See Article History Alternative Titles: The term Palestine has been associated variously and sometimes controversially with this small region, which some have asserted also includes Jordan.
Ancient and medieval political philosophers assumed that human beings were not merely different, but unequal in terms of their moral, political, and social worth. Since these inequalities were deemed natural, it followed that some were born to rule, and others to be ruled.
The ideal regime therefore conferred power on the best sort of men and good regimes at least prevented power from falling into the wrong hands. Democracy was condemned on this account, for it inverted the natural order by making rulers of those who should be subjects, and subjects of those who should be rulers.
A modern conception of political authority was advanced by Thomas Hobbes and John Locketwo English thinkers of the seventeenth century who asserted the natural equality of human beings. Hobbes and Locke imagined human beings in a "state of nature" and explained why they would enter into a social contract with each other for their mutual benefit.
Out of this contract came government, which was established for the protection of citizens and endowed with powers commensurate to that end. On this account, government derived its authority from the consent of the governed, not the natural superiority of a ruling class. Neither Hobbes nor Locke concluded that people ought to rule themselves once government was established, however.
Hobbes famously argued that people should submit to a sovereign with absolute powers, while Locke believed they would tacitly accept constitutional monarchy, reserving the right to rebel against unjust governments.
Thus, each man insisted on natural equality but stopped short of recommending political equality in the sense that we understand it today. Our understanding is summarized in the Declaration of Independencewhich asserts that "all men are created equal," and that as such "they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights," among them "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
But there was also substantial opposition to radical notions of equality, and it resurfaced once the revolutionary ardor had cooled. With only qualified support for the idea of equality, it proved remarkably difficult for the new nation to abolish slavery, extend the franchise, and ensure political rights and civil liberties for all.
Yet it also proved impossible to resist movements aimed at combating discrimination based on class, race, and gender. Most of these movements invoked the Declaration in support of their cause and in that sense the history of the United States after may be seen as the continuing struggle to realize what Thomas Jefferson called the self-evident truth of equality.
Equal Liberty The concept of liberty lends a particular cast to political thinking about equality in the United States.
Legal restraints are particularly suspect in this regard, reflecting the widespread assumption that government is at best a necessary evil. To be sure, some legal restraints on liberty are endorsed, and even welcomed.
Few dispute the need to imprison persons who take the lives of other citizens, thereby depriving them of liberty or otherwise compromising their pursuit of happiness. Neither is there strong opposition to restrictions on the liberty of minors and adults who are mentally incompetent, since their well-being and that of others might be jeopardized by the exercise of too much freedom.
What counts as "too much freedom" is of course a political question and reform movements regularly surface in American politics for the purpose of loosening restraints on those whose reason is suspect by conventional standards. The aversion to arbitrary restrictions on individual freedom points in the direction of equal liberty.
As Alexis de Tocqueville noted long ago see Democracy in AmericaAmericans do not recognize privileges of rank.Reflects the impact of the net revenue deferral from Windows 10 of $ billion, which decreased operating income, net income, and diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) by $ billion, $ billion, and $, respectively.
In the "social justice" world, the laws are not equal for the prudent, capable and efficient, who have seen their rights contested and abridged.
of the concept of equality . Equality of outcome, equality of condition, or equality of results is a political concept which is central to some political ideologies and is used regularly in political discourse, often in contrast to the term equality of opportunity.
Equality and The Fourteenth Amendment: A New Constitution. In the wake of the Civil War, three amendments were added to the U.S. Constitution. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery ( As the Pan-American Health Organization puts it, equity is the means, equality is the outcome.
Understanding the differences between equity and equality helps us to recognize and respond to differences in health and well-being that are unfair, avoidable and changeable. Law and Neuroscience Bibliography Browse and search the bibliography online (see search box below) Click here to learn more about the Law and Neuroscience Bibliography..
Sign up here for email notifications on new additions to this bibliography.. Graph of the Cumulative Total of Law and Neuroscience Publications: