A description of the electoral system elections

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A description of the electoral system elections

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Germany Table of Contents The Basic Law guarantees the right to vote by secret ballot in direct and free elections to every German citizen eighteen years of age or older. To be eligible to vote, an individual must have resided in a constituency district for at least three months prior to an election.

Officials who are popularly elected include Bundestag deputies at the federal level, Landtag representatives or senate members at the Land level, and council members at the district and local levels.

A description of the electoral system elections

Executive officials typically are not chosen in popular, direct elections; however, in a minority of municipalities the mayor is elected by popular vote. Elections usually are held every four years at all levels. Elections at the federal, Landand local levels are not held simultaneously, as in the United States, but rather are staggered.

As a result, electoral campaigns are almost always under way, and each A description of the electoral system elections is viewed as a test of the federal government's popularity and the strength of the opposition. All elections are held on Sunday. Voter turnout, traditionally high--around 90 percent for national elections--has been decreasing since the early s.

Voters are most likely to participate in general elections, but even at that level turnout in western Germany fell from The general election was the first following unification; turnout was the lowest since the first West German election in The most consistent participants in the electoral process are civil servants, and a clear correlation exists between willingness to vote and increasing social and professional status and income.

Analysts had been predicting a further drop in turnout, the result of increasing voter alienation, for the national election in October ; in fact, turnout increased slightly to In designing the electoral system, the framers of the Basic Law had two objectives.

A description of the electoral system elections

First, they sought to reestablish the system of proportional representation used during the Weimar Republic. A proportional representation system distributes legislative seats based on a party's percentage of the popular vote. For example, if a party wins 15 percent of the popular vote, it receives 15 percent of the seats in the Bundestag.

The second objective was to construct a system of single-member districts, like those in the United States. The framers believed that this combination would create an electoral system that would not fragment as the Weimar Republic had and would ensure greater accountability of representatives to their electoral districts.

The Electoral System

A hybrid electoral system of personalized proportional representation resulted. Under the German electoral system, each voter casts two ballots in a Bundestag election. The elector's first vote is cast for a candidate running to represent a particular district. The candidate who receives a plurality of votes becomes the district representative.

Germany is divided into electoral districts with roughlyvoters in each district. Half of the Bundestag members are directly elected from these districts.

Germany - The Electoral System Find your polling place location using the My Voter Information system.
Astley Hall The Act, which served as the Union's constitution untilestablished a parliamentary regime along the lines of the Westminster model, composed of a directly elected House of Assembly and an indirectly elected Senate. However, the franchise was largely restricted to white men:
Plurality systems[ edit ] Countries using first-past-the-post for legislatures. Plurality voting is a system in which the candidate s with the highest amount of vote wins, with no requirement to get a majority of votes.

The second ballot is cast for a particular political party. These second votes determine each party's share of the popular vote. The first ballot is designed to decrease the anonymity of a strict proportional representation system--thus the description "personalized"--but it is the second ballot that determines how many Bundestag seats each party will receive.

To ensure that each party's percentage of the combined district first ballot and party second ballot seats equals its share of the second vote, each party is allocated additional seats. These additional party seats are filled according to lists of candidates drawn up by the state party organization prior to the election.

Research indicates that constituency representatives in the Bundestag are more responsive to their electorate's needs and are slightly more likely to follow their constituents' preferences when voting than deputies chosen from the party lists.

If a party wins more constituency seats than it is entitled to according to its share of the vote in the second ballot, the party retains those seats, and the size of the Bundestag is increased.

This was the case in both the and federal elections. After the election, the total number of seats in the Bundestag rose from to In sixteen extra seats were added, leading to a member Bundestag; twelve of those seats went to Kohl's CDU and accounted for Kohl's ten-seat margin of victory.

One crucial exception to Germany's system of personalized proportional representation is the so-called 5 percent clause. The electoral law stipulates that a party must receive a minimum of 5 percent of the national vote, or three constituency seats, in order to get any representation in the Bundestag.

Election Resources on the Internet / Recursos Electorales en la Internet

Thus, a party needed only to win 5 percent of the vote in either western or eastern Germany in order to receive seats in the Bundestag. The 5 percent clause was crafted to prevent the proliferation of small extremist parties like those that destabilized the Weimar Republic.The next presidential election will be held on November 3, The presidential election process follows a typical cycle: In the Electoral College system, each state gets a certain number of electors based on its total number of representatives in Congress.

Presidential Election Process. Learn about the Presidential election process, including the Electoral College, caucuses and primaries, and the national conventions.

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Description of electoral system: The King is hereditary The Prime Minister, after legislative elections, is usually the leader of the majority party or coalition. In the Electoral College system, each state gets a certain number of electors based on its total number of representatives in Congress.

Each elector casts one electoral vote following the general election; there are a total of electoral votes. The candidate that gets more than half () wins the election.

Parallel Systems: An electoral system in which each voter gets two votes: one for a candidate in a local constituency and another for party. A fraction of seats are elected using plurality and the remainder from list proportional systems. The official U.S. Electoral College web site, providing current information about the presidential election, information about the roles and responsibilities of state officials and Electors, instructions for state officials and Electors, the timeline of key dates for the presidential election, information about laws and legal requirements related to the presidential election and the Electors.

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